Baseline Glycemic Status and Outcome of Persons with Type 2 Diabetes with COVID-19 Infections
A Single-Center Retrospective Study
Introduction. The coexistence of two global pandemics, COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been implicated with worse prognosis. The association of diabetes and worse outcome in viral infections stems from the detrimental effect of hyperglycemia to the control of viremia and different components of the host response. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 patients and establish the association of baseline glycemic status and COVID-19 outcomes among persons with type 2 diabetes.
Methodology. A single center, retrospective study among adult persons with type 2 diabetes diagnosed with COVID-19 in Makati Medical Center from March 1 to August 31, 2020. A total of 156 medical records (26%) out of 584 confirmed cases were reviewed. Data were collected on diabetes status, comorbid conditions and laboratory findings. Both Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models were fitted. To assess the factors associated with mortality as a dichotomous endpoint (died/survived), binary logistic regression was performed. On the other hand, a time-to-mortality analysis was performed using Cox regression. For the effect estimate, we refer to hazard ratios in the Cox proportional hazards model and odds ratios in the logistic regression models. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex and two models were additionally adjusted for any presence of comorbidity.
Results. A total of 156 COVID-19 patients with diabetes were analyzed. Upon admission, 13% were in diabetic ketosis, 4% were in a state of DKA, and 2% had hypoglycemia. About 5%, 33%, 26%, and 36% of patients had mild, moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19, respectively. Between non-survivors and survivors, the latter group were significantly younger in age (p<.003) and had less ICU admissions (p<.001). Although DKA status upon admission seemed to result in increased odds of non-survival (cOR 5.8 [95% CI 1.1-30.7]), no other feature in the glycemic history was significantly associated with mortality outcome after having adjusted for age and sex. Death in this study was limited to patients with severe or critical disease.
Conclusion. The risk of mortality is five times greater among patients admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis. The incidence of complications were also significantly greater and mortality was limited to patients with severe or critical disease.
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