Prevalence and Determinant Factors for Overweight and Obesity and Degenerative Diseases Among Young Adults in Indonesia
Objective. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults and its associations with some variables, based on the national Basic Health Research (BHR) data year 2007.
Methodology. The statistical analyses included data of 80,254 females and 73,588 males, age 19-29 years, who live in rural and urban areas. Weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure data were measured, and the subjects were interviewed to obtain the socio-demographic and lifestyle data. Blood glucose data came from 10 % of the total subjects in urban area only. Overweight and obesity were determined using the Asia-Pacific WHO criteria.
Results. Overweight prevalence was 13.4% for females, 12.6% for males and obesity was 15.0% for females and 8.3% for males. The prevalence of both was increased by age, and were similar among high socio-economic group (13.4% overweight and 12.4% obese) and low socio-economic group (12.2 % overweight and 10.9% obese). The level of physical activity was not different among overweight and obese versus normal subjects. The prevalence of central obesity was 15.3%, among overweight and 49.9% among obese. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.4% among overweight and 21.0% among obese in comparison to 9.7% among normal subjects. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus was 6.1% and 2.2% among overweight; 8.9% and 1.4% among obese subjects. Determinant factors for overweight and obesity were older age (OR= 1.72, 95% CI 1.66-1.76); female gender (OR=1.33, CI 1.29 – 1.37); work as housewife, government official, armed force personnel, policeman, private businessman (OR=1.41, CI 1.37-1.46); higher per capita income (OR= 1.09, CI: 1.06 -1.13) and living in urban area (OR=1.13, CI: 1.09 -1.17).
Conclusions. These results indicate that overweight and obesity has become a major public health problem among young adults in Indonesia which needs a national strategic plan for earlier prevention.
The Surf report: Surveillance of risk factors related to noncommunicable diseases: Current status of global data. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization, 2003.
World Health Organization. Prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases: Implementation of the global strategy. 63rd World Health Assembly. 1 April 2010; 2- 6.
Van Wye G, Kerker BD, Matte T, Chamany S, Eisenhower D, et al. Obesity and Diabetes in New York City. 2002 and 2004. Prev Chronic Dis, April, 2008; 5(2): A48.
National Institute Health Research and Development. Riskesdas report. Jakarta: 2007, pp 48– 53.
Lester A. Lefton. Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Viacom Company: 1997; p. 368
WHO. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycaemia. Geneva: WHO: 2006; pp. 9-43
Serdula MK., Ivery D, Coates RJ , Freedman DS , et al. Do obese children become obese adults? Preventive Medicine.1993; 22(2): 167 - 177
Harris J, Benedict F . A Biometric Study of Human Basal Metabolism. PNAS 1918; 4 (12): 370–3.
Zaninotto P. Head J. Stamatakis E. Wardle H. Mindell J. Trends in obesity among adults in England from 1993 to 2004 by age and social class and projections of prevalence to 2012. J Epidemiol Community Health, 2008; 0 :1–7.
Popkin BM and Larsen PG. The nutrition transition: Worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. International Journal of Obesity 2004; 28: S2–S9.
Deborah B, Nicolas F. Developing comprehensive approaches to prevention and control of obesity among low-income, urban, African-American women. Journal of the American Women’s Association 2001; 56: 59-64.
Ziraba AK, Fotso JC. Overweight and obesity in urban Africa: A problem of the rich or the poor? BMC Public Health 2009; 9:465
The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for Response. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2007
Macmohan S, Cutter J, Britain E, Higgins M. Obesity and hypertension: epidemiological and clinical issues. Eur Heart J 1987; 8 (suppl B): 57-70.
Pischon T., Boeing H., Hoffmann K., Bergmann M., et al. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. The New England Journal of Medicine 2008; 359 (20): 2105 - 2120
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and National Heart Foundation of Australia. The relationship between overweight, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Canberra, 2004.
Steinberger J., Moran A., Prineas RJ., Vessby B. et al. Obesity and insulin resistance fuels cardiovascular risk factors in teens. Circulation 2005; (23): 22 – 23.
Navadeh S., Sajadi L., Mirzazadeh A., Asgari F., Haghazali M. Housewives' obesity determinant factors in Iran; National survey – stepwise approach to surveillance. Irainian Journal of Public Health 2011; 40(2): 87 – 95.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International. (full license at this link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode).
To obtain permission to translate/reproduce or download articles or use images FOR COMMERCIAL REUSE/BUSINESS PURPOSES from the Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, kindly fill in the Permission Request for Use of Copyrighted Material and return as PDF file to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
A written agreement shall be emailed to the requester should permission be granted.