Use of Short Message Services (SMS) for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Objectives. The primary objective is to determine if 3 times a week SMS will improve adherence to diet and exercise. The secondary objective is to determine the mean change in body weight, body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).
Methodology. This is an open-randomized controlled trial conducted for 6 months which included 104 subjects. Z test of two proportions was used to determine difference in dietary and exercise adherence. Mean change in body weight, BMI and HbA1c were also determined.
- After 3 months, significant difference is observed in mean HbA1c (SMS= 7.13 + 0.99, control= 7.53 + 0.91, p=0.034). At 6 months, significant difference is seen in mean number of meals/day (SMS=2.61 + 0.63, control= 2.29 + 0.72, p= 0.018), mean number of minutes/exercise (SMS= 37.40 + 14.87, control=31.44 + 10.82, p= 0.021) and mean HbA1c (SMS=6.99 + 0.86, control= 7.34 + 0.90, p= 0.0452).
Conclusion. The use of SMS as an adjunct to the standard of DM care improved adherence to diet after 6 months in terms of mean number of meals, improved adherence to exercise after 6 months in terms of mean number of minutes/exercise and significant reduction in HbA1c levels after 3 and 6 months.
Dans AL, Morales DD, Velandria F, et al. National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNHeS): Atherosclerosis – related diseases and risk factors. Phil J Internal Medicine. May-June 2005; 43:103-115.
Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, and King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004; 24: 1047-1053.
Chin MH, Cook S, Jin L, et al. Barriers to providing diabetes care in community health centers. Diabetes Care. 2001; 24: 268 –274.
Powell MP, Glover SH, Probst JC, Laditka SB: Barriers associated with the delivery of Medicare-reimbursed diabetes self-management education. Diabetes Educ 31. 2005; 890–899.
Downer SR, Meara JG, DaCosta A. Use of SMS text messaging to improve outpatient attendance. MJA. 2005;183:366–8.
Milne R, Horne M, Torsney B. SMS reminders in the UK National Health Service: An evaluation of its impact on no-shows at hospital out-patient clinics. Health Care Manage Rev 2006; 31:130–6.
Menon-Johansson AS, McNaught F, Mandalia S, Sullivan AK. Texting decreases the time to treatment for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. STI 2006; 82:49 –51.
Weaver A, Young A, Rowntree J, et al. Application of mobile phone technology for managing chemotherapy-associated side-effects. Annals Oncol 2007; 18:1887–92.
Rowling M. Rising mobile phone use rings change in disasters. London: United Kingdom: Thomson Reuters Foundation; 2009. Accessed October 25, 2009.
Banks K. Mobile phones and the digital divide. San Francisco, CA: PC World Communications Inc; 2008. Accessed October 25, 2009.
Philippines - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband. http://www.bharatbook.com/ Market-Research-Reports/Philippines- Telecoms-Mobile-and-Broadband.html. Accessed September 2009.
Oliva E, “RP's poorest spend $2 a month on mobile phones—study.” http://technology.inquirer.net. Accessed Jan 20, 2007, Feb 22, 2008
Krishna S, Boren S: Diabetes self-management care via cell phone: A systematic review. J Diabetes Sci Technol. May 2008; Vol 2, Issue 3
Arora S, Peters A, Agy C, B.S., Menchine M: A mobile health intervention for inner city patients with poorly controlled diabetes: Proof-of-concept of the TExT-MED program. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics. 2012. Vol.14, No.6
Fjeldsoe B, Marshall A, Miller Y: Behavior change interventions delivered by mobile telephone Short-Message Service. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2009; Vol. 36, No. 2.
Ramachandran A, Snehalatah C, Ram J et al. Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: A prospective, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. www.thelancet.com/diabetes-endocrinology. September 11, 2013.
X. Liang, Q. Wang, X. Yang et al: Effect of mobile phone intervention for diabetes on glycaemic control: A meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2011; Apr: 28(4):455-63.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International. (full license at this link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode).
To obtain permission to translate/reproduce or download articles or use images FOR COMMERCIAL REUSE/BUSINESS PURPOSES from the Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, kindly fill in the Permission Request for Use of Copyrighted Material and return as PDF file to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
A written agreement shall be emailed to the requester should permission be granted.