Glycemic Patterns and Factors Associated with Post-Hemodialysis Hyperglycemia among End-Stage Renal Disease Patients undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

  • Abdul Hanif Khan Yusof Khan University Putra Malaysia
  • Nor Fadhlina Zakaria Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Muhammad Adil Zainal Abidin International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Hospital Campus, Kuantan, Pahang
  • Christopher Tiam Seong Lim University Putra Malaysia
  • Nor Azmi Kamaruddin The National University of Malaysia (HUKM), Kuala Lumpur
Keywords: renal dialysis, glycemic variability, diabetes complications, hyperglycemia, risk factors, Asians


Introduction. Chronic and post-prandial hyperglycemia are independent risk factors for diabetic complications. Glycemic patterns among hemodialysis end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD) differ as glucose metabolism changes with declining kidney function with more pronounced glycemic fluctuations. The objectives of this study are to determine glycemic patterns on hemodialysis days, the magnitude of post-hemodialysis rebound hyperglycemia (PHH) and their associated factors.

Methodology. 148 patients on hemodialysis were analysed, 91 patients had end-stage-diabetic-renal disease (DM-ESRD), and 57 patients had end-stage-non-diabetic renal disease (NDM-ESRD). Glycemic patterns and PHH data were obtained from 11-point and 7-point self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) profiles on hemodialysis and
non-hemodialysis days. PHH and its associated factors were analysed with logistic regression.

Results. Mean blood glucose on hemodialysis days was 9.33 [SD 2.7] mmol/L in DM-ESRD patients compared to 6.07 [SD 0.85] mmol/L in those with NDM-ESRD (p<0.001). PHH occurred in 70% of patients and was more pronounced in DM-ESRD compared to NDM-ESRD patients (72.5% vs 27.5%; OR 4.5). Asymptomatic hypoglycemia was observed
in 18% of patients. DM-ESRD, older age, previous IHD, obesity, high HbA1c, elevated highly-sensitive CRP and low albumin were associated with PHH.

Conclusion. DM-ESRD patients experienced significant PHH in our cohort. Other associated factors include older age, previous IHD, obesity, high HbA1c, elevated hs-CRP and low albumin.


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Author Biographies

Abdul Hanif Khan Yusof Khan, University Putra Malaysia

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences

Nor Fadhlina Zakaria, Universiti Putra Malaysia

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences

Muhammad Adil Zainal Abidin, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Hospital Campus, Kuantan, Pahang

Kuliyyah of Medicine

Christopher Tiam Seong Lim, University Putra Malaysia

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences

Nor Azmi Kamaruddin, The National University of Malaysia (HUKM), Kuala Lumpur

Department of Medicine


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How to Cite
Yusof Khan, A. H. K., Zakaria, N. F., Zainal Abidin, M. A., Lim, C. T. S., & Kamaruddin, N. A. (2020). Glycemic Patterns and Factors Associated with Post-Hemodialysis Hyperglycemia among End-Stage Renal Disease Patients undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, 35(1), 68-76.
Original Articles