Main Article Content
The global burden of diabetes and its accompanying risk factors is upon us. Asia is the focus of this burden, owing to huge population numbers and increasing prevalence rates. The Philippines National Health and Nutrition Survey (NNHeS) of 2013, has provided the latest health and disease score with prevalence rates of the major risk factors among adults ≥20 years of age: diabetes (5.4%), hypertension (22.3%), dyslipidemia, low HDL (71.3%), obesity, BMI >25 kg/m2 (31.1%), and smoking (25.4%). Metabolic syndrome as of the 2008 survey reports a 27% prevalence rate (unpublished data). Efforts have to be directed to achieve improvement in prevention, survival, and quality of life for all diabetics. The health infrastructure under the leadership of the Department of Health, in partnership with governmental and non-governmental organizations has to provide a cohesive plan engaging all partners in various aspects of care. Strategies to enhance outcomes include: 1) a national screening program, 2) implementation of practice guidelines that will elevate the quality of care for all, 3) access to healthcare, medications, 4) development of an environment for research in institutions to allow a better understanding of these conditions among Filipino patients and 5) enhancement of training, education and service to benefit the Filipino diabetic. Indeed, the challenge is upon all of us as a nation, and we need to stand up and move forward with an organized and accessible system of care, as we aim to combat the epidemic of diabetes and its complications.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International. (full license at this link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode).
To obtain permission to translate/reproduce or download articles or use images FOR COMMERCIAL REUSE/BUSINESS PURPOSES from the Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, kindly fill in the Permission Request for Use of Copyrighted Material and return as PDF file to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
A written agreement shall be emailed to the requester should permission be granted.
Khardori R. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117853 -overview. Accessed September 20, 2015.
Paz-Pacheco E. Facing up to the challenges of the diabetic epidemic. Acta Medica Philippina. July-December 2005;39(2):43-47.
International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 6th ed. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2014. https://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/EN_6E_Atlas_Full_0.pdf. Accessed September 21, 2015
Philippine Statistics Authority-National Statistical Coordination Board. Population projections. http://www.nscb.gov.ph/secstat/d_popnProj.asp. Accessed September 21, 2015.
Florentino RF. The double burden of malnutrition in Asia: A phenomenon not to be dismissed. J Asean Fed Endocr Soc. 2011;26(2):133-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.15605/jafes.026.02.09.
2013 NNHeS. Presented by Dr. Mario Capanzana, Director, Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) at the National Occupational Safety and Health (NOSH) Congress, November 21, 2014.
NNHeS, Sy RG, Morales DD, Dans AL, Paz-Pacheco E, Punzalan FER, Abelardo NS and Duante CA. Prevalence of atherosclerosis-related risk factors and diseases in the Philippines. NNHeS 2008. Advance Publication by J Epidemiol. 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20110095.
Sin Tax. Official Gazette. http://www.gov.ph/sin-tax/. Accessed on September 21, 2015.
Litonjua AD, Waspadj S, Pheng CS, et al. AFES Study Group on Diabetes in Pregnancy: Preliminary data on prevalence. Philipp J of Intern Medicine. 1996;34:67-8.
Malong CL, Sia-Atanacio A, Andag-Silva A, Cunanan E. J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc. 2013;28(1):56-63.
Urbanozo H, Isip-Tan II. J of the ASEAN Federation of Endocr Soc. 2014;29(2):157-162.
Yeung RO, Zhang Y, Luk A, Yang W, Sobrepena L, Yoon KH, et al. Metabolic profiles and treatment gaps in young-onset type 2 diabetes in Asia (The JADE programme): A cross-sectional study of a prospective cohort. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014;2(12):935-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70137-8.
Fojas MC, Lantion-Ang FL, Jimeno CA, Santiago D, Arroyo M, Laurel A, Sy H, See J. Complications and cardiovascular risk factors among newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetics in Manila. Philipp J Intern Med. 2009;47(3):99-105.
Ramachandran A, Ma RCW, Snehalath C. Diabetes in Asia. The Lancet. 2009; 375(9712):408-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60937-5.
Araneta MRG and Barrett-Connor E. Ethnic differences in visceral adipose tissue and type 2 diabetes: Filipino, African-American, and white women. Obesity Res. 2005;13(8):1458-1465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2005.176.
Araneta MRG, Barrett-Connor E. Adiponectin and ghrelin levels and body size in normoglycemic Filipino, African-American, and White Women. Obesity. 2007;15(10):2454-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.291.
Paz-Pacheco E, Lim-Abrahan MA, Sy RAG, Jasul Jr. GV, Sison CMC, Laurel AF. Adiponectin levels and its association with hyperglycaemia in adult Filipino participants in the 2003-04 National Nutrition and Health Survey. Diabetes Vasc Dis Res. 2009; 6(4):231-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164109344933.
Bugawan TL, et al. Association and interaction of the IL4R, IL4, and IL13 loci with type 1 diabetes among Filipinos. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72(6):1505-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/375655.
Paz-Pacheco E, Cutiongco-dela Paz EM, Halili-Manabat C, Lim-Abrahan MA, Padilla C, Corvera KD, et al. Mitochondrial DNA (T/C) 16189 polymorphism, variants and heteroplasmy among Filipinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acta Medica Philippina. 2008;42(1):17-21.
Paz-Pacheco E, Cutiongco-dela Paz EM, Jasul Jr. G, Añonuevo-Cruz MC, Montemayor R. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme gene polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy in Filipino type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc. May 2012;27(1):87-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.15606/jafes.027.01.14.
Platt G, Orchard T, Emerson S, et al. Translating the chronic care model into the community. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:811-17.
Jimeno CA, Sobrepena LM, Mirasol RC. DiabCare 2008: Survey on glycaemic control and the status of diabetes care and complications among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Philippines. Philipp J Intern Med. 2012;50(1):15-22.
Grundy J, Healy V, Gorgolon L, Sandig E. Overview of devolution of health services in the Philippines. Rural Rem Health. 2003;3(2):220.
Romualdez Jr. AG, dela Rosa JFE, Flavier JDA, Quimbo SLA, Hartigan-Go KY, et al. The Philippines health system review. Health Systems in Transition. 2011;1(2):1-155.
Krall, Leo C. 2th edition, Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1985. Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus, ch. 23, p. 465.
Ardeňa GJRA, Paz-Pacheco E, Jimeno CA, Lantion-Ang FL, Paterno E, Juban N. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of persons with type 2 diabetes in a rural community. Phase I of the community-based Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) program in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;90(2):160-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2010.08.003.
Paz-Pacheco E, Ardeňa, G, Jimeno C, Lantion-Ang FL, Juban, N, Paterno E, Diabetes Study Group of UP-PGH Endocrinology Section. Effectiveness of a community-based Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) program: A pilot study in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines, phase 3. Funded by the International Diabetes Federation Bridges grant, the Philippine Diabetes Association and DOST, PCHRD. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Jimeno CA on behalf of the Technical Review Committee of the UNITE for DM Clinical Practice Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of diabetes. A summary of the Philippines UNITE for Diabetes Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of diabetes (Part 1: Screening and diagnosis of DM). J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc. 2011;26(1):26-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.15605/jafes.026.01.05.
Adorable-Wagan P, Paz-Pacheco E, Aligui G. Efficacy and safety of insulin protocol among medical and surgical patients admitted in the Medical City Hospital. J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc. 2014;29(2): 179-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.15605/jafes.029.02.12.
Ngalob Q, Jimeno CA, Isip-Tan IT. Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of an ICU insulin infusion protocol. J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc. 2014;29(1):33-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.15605/jafes.029.01.05.