A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness of Short Message Service (SMS) Reminders in Improving Postpartum Follow-up among Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Keywords:gestational diabetes, short message service, reminder system
Objective. This study assessed whether short message service (SMS) reminders would improve follow-up rate among gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients by 12 weeks postpartum.
Methodology. In this single-center, single-blind randomized controlled trial, we assigned 308 patients with GDM to either of 2 arms, usual care alone versus usual care with SMS reminders. In the usual care group, 154 patients received a 10-minute short lecture on GDM and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) request prior to discharge. In the SMS group, 154 patients received twice a week SMS reminders at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 10 weeks after delivery in addition to usual care. The primary outcome was clinic visit within 6 to 12 weeks postpartum with a 75 g OGTT result.
Results. In our population, the overall follow-up rate was 19.8% (61/308). Follow up rates were 20.1% (31/154) for the usual care group and 19.5% (30/154) for the SMS. The addition of SMS reminders was not associated with an increase in follow-up rate at 12 weeks postpartum (adjusted RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.63-1.52; p=0.932). The use of insulin or metformin for GDM control was associated with increased follow-up (adjusted RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.20-3.07; p=0.006).
Conclusion. SMS reminders did not improve postpartum follow-up rate among GDM patients at 12 weeks postpartum.
Litonjua A, Waspadji S, Pheng CS. AFES Study Group on Diabetes in Pregnancy: Preliminary data on prevalence. Philipp J Intern Med. 1996;34(2):67-8.
Jimeno CA, for the Technical Review Committee of the UNITE for DM Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of Diabetes. A summary of the Philippines UNITE for diabetes clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of diabetes (Part I: Screening and diagnosis of DM). J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc. 2011;26(1):26-30. https://doi.org/10.15605/jafes.026.01.05.
Malong CL, Sia-Anastacio A, Andag-Silva A, Cunanan E. Incidence of postpartum diabetes and glucose intolerance among Filipino patients with gestational diabetes mellitus seen at a tertiary hospital. J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc. 2013;2(1):56-63. https://doi.org/10.15605/jafes.028.01.11.
Dawson SI. Glucose tolerance in pregnancy and the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;85(1):14-9. PMID: 19446355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2009.04.007.
Nielsen KK, Kapur A, Damm P, de Courten M, Bygbjerg IC. From screening to postpartum follow-up – the determinants and barriers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) services, a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2014;14:41. PMID: 24450389 PMCID: PMC3901889 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-14-41.
Tovar A, Chasan-Taber L, Eggleston E, Oken E. Postpartum screening for diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Prev Chronic Dis. 2011;8(6):A124. http://www. cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2011/nov/11_0031.htm. Accessed 28 August 2016.
Stasenko, M, Liddell J, Cheng YW, Sparks TN, Killion M, Caughey AB. Patient counseling increases post-partum follow-up in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204(6):522.e1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2011.01.057.
Hunt KJ, Conway DL. Who returns for post-partum glucose screening following gestational diabetes mellitus? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198(4):404.e1-6. PMID: 18241820 PMCID: PMC2612122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2007.09.015.
Kim C, McEwan NL, Keer EA, et al. Preventive counseling among women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2007;30(10):2489-95. PMID: 17623826. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc07-0435.
Clark HD, Graham ID, Karovitch A, Keely EJ. Do postal reminders increase postpartum screening of diabetes mellitus in women with gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200(6):634.e1-7. PMID: 19268878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2009.01.003.
Jeppesen C, Kristensen JK, Ovesen P, Maindal HT. The forgotten risk? A systematic review of the effect of reminder systems for postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:373. PMID: 26306499. PMCID: PMC4548707. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1334-2.
Nouhjah S, Shahbazian H, Amoori N, et al. Postpartum screening practices, progression to abnormal glucose tolerance and its related risk factors in Asian women with a known history of gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diab Met Syndr. Clin Res Rev. 2017; 11 Suppl 2:S703-12. PMID: 28571777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2017.05.002.
National Telehealth Center. Internet, social media and mobile use of Filipinos in 2015. Available at https://telehealth.ph/2015/03/26/internet-social-media-and-mobile-use-of-filipinos-in-2015/. Accessed March 2016.
Abroms LC, Whittaker R, Free C, Mendel Van Alstyne J, Schindler-Ruwisch JM. Developing and Pretesting a Text Messaging Program for Health Behavior Change: Recommended Steps. Eysenbach G, ed. JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 2015;3(4):e107. doi:10.2196/mhealth.4917.
Kannisto KA, Koivunen MH, Välimäki MA. Use of mobile phone text message reminders in health care services: A narrative literature review. J Med Internet Res. 2014;16(10):e222. PMID: 25326646. PMCID: PMC4211035. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3442.
Tamban C, Isip-Tan I, Jimeno C. Use of short message services (SMS) for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial. J AASEAN Fed Endocr Soc. 2013;28(2):143-9. https://doi.org/10.15605/jafes.028.02.08.
Van Ryswyk EM, Middleton PF, Hague WM, Crowther CA. Postpartum SMS reminders to women who have experienced gestational diabetes to test for Type 2 diabetes: The DIAMIND randomized trial. Diabet Med. 2015;32(10):1368-76. PMID: 25816702. https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.12769.
Bandyopadhyay M, Small R, Davey MA. Attendance for postpartum glucose tolerance testing following gestational diabetes among South Asian women in Australia: A qualitative study. J Womens Health, Issues Care. 2015;4(1):. https://doi.org/10.4172/2325-9795.1000178.
Suffoletto B. Text message behavioral interventions: From here to where? Curr Opin Psychol. 2016;9:16-21. PMID: 26665157. NIHMSID: NIHMS725153. PMCID: PMC4671292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.09.012.
Webb TL, Joseph J, Yardley L, Michie S. Using the internet to promote health behavior change: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of theoretical basis, use of behavior change techniques, and mode of delivery on efficacy. J Med Internet Res. 2010;12(1):e4. PMID: 20164043. PMCID: PMC2836773. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.1376.
How to Cite
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International. (full license at this link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode).
To obtain permission to translate/reproduce or download articles or use images FOR COMMERCIAL REUSE/BUSINESS PURPOSES from the Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, kindly fill in the Permission Request for Use of Copyrighted Material and return as PDF file to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
A written agreement shall be emailed to the requester should permission be granted.