Cardiometabolic Risk Factors leading to Diabetes Mellitus among the Young (YOD) from the 8th Philippine National Nutrition Survey

Keywords: young-onset diabetes mellitus, Filipinos, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease


Objectives. This study looked into the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and risks for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases among young adults with diabetes (age 20-44 years old, YOD) and late-onset DM (≥45 years old, LOD) in Filipinos.

Methodology. Weighted data from 546,580 adults with DM from the 8th Philippine National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNHeS) were utilized. Differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical profiles and metabolic risks were compared between YOD and LOD.

Results. The aggregated prevalence of DM is 5.43% (95%CI, 5.10–5.79), YOD were 2.64% (95% CI, 2.32–3.00) and LOD 9.85% (95%CI, 9.18–10.56). Mean age of YOD was 37,6 years, LOD 59,9 years. The YOD were mostly males (56%), with higher BMI (26.24 kg/m2 vs 25 kg/m2, p=0.002), lower mean SBP (122.41±19.17 mmHg vs 135.45±22.47 mmHg, p<0.001), more daily smokers (23% vs 14%), and alcoholic beverage drinkers (39% vs 31%). Physical activity was similar between groups (44% vs 51%, p=0.078). However, average total caloric intake (1776.78±758.38 kcal vs 1596.88±639.16 kcal, p=0.023) and carbohydrate intake (306.13±142.16 grams vs 270.53±104.74 g, p=0.014) were higher in YOD. Dietary carbohydrate proportions were higher than recommended (69% vs 68%) for both groups.
Young Filipinos had higher risk to develop diabetes when they are obese II (22% vs 12%), current drinker (56% vs 37%), and current smoker (28% vs 18%). Eighty percent of YOD and LOD had metabolic syndrome (MetS). With every unit increase in age and fat intake, the odds of having MetS were raised by 5.4% (95%CI 1%–10%, p=0.029) and 1.6% (95%CI 0.04%-3%, p=0.044), respectively.

Conclusion. Early-onset diabetes mellitus appears to be driven by obesity, MetS and social behaviors. Modifiable risk factors can be improved early to decrease hazards to develop cardiometabolic complications.


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How to Cite
Uy, A. B., & Jimeno, C. (2021). Cardiometabolic Risk Factors leading to Diabetes Mellitus among the Young (YOD) from the 8th Philippine National Nutrition Survey. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, 36(1). Retrieved from
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