Clinicodemographic Profile and Outcomes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Indonesian Cohort of DISCOVER
A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study
Keywords:diabetes type 2, vascular complications, real-world study, Indonesia
Background. Indonesia is amongst the top 10 countries with the highest prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) at 10.8%. However, the distinguishable features of T2DM in Indonesia remain obscure. Therefore, the DISCOVER study aimed to describe the characteristics of T2DM patients, associated vascular complications and treatment in Indonesia.
Methodology. DISCOVER study is a multi-country, multicenter, prospective, cohort study over 3 years. In the present study, the data were collected from 13 sites from clinical practice, hospitals and public health facilities in Indonesia.
Results. A total of 221 subjects were recruited with a mean age of 55.6 ± 9.8 years and body mass index (BMI) of 26.4 ± 4.4 kg/m2. Over 40% of patients had hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia. The mean duration of T2DM was 58.3 ± 62.0 months while the mean HbA1c levels was 9.2 ± 2%. In total, 82.4% completed the study within a 36-month follow-up period. BMI remained elevated i.e., >25 kg/m2. A significant reduction was observed in HbA1c levels as compared to baseline (9.2 ± 2% to 8.1 ± 1.8%). T2DM-associated microvascular complications such as peripheral neuropathy, albuminuria and chronic kidney disease were observed in 17.2%. Macrovascular complications including coronary artery disease and heart failure were seen in 26.2% of patients. We also found that more than 70% of patients were on metformin and/or sulfonylurea.
Conclusion. The features of patients with T2DM in Indonesia were high BMI, with hypertension and hyperlipidemia as co-morbidities. Metformin and sulfonylureas were the most common treatment. HbA1c reduction during follow-up did not reach recommended target. Thus, early detection and intervention using available glucose-lowering medications and aggressive management of risk factors and complications are essential to improve outcomes of diabetes management
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